# JSON Facet API

## Facet & Analytics Module

The JSON Faceting module exposes similar functionality to Solr’s traditional faceting module but with a stronger emphasis on usability. It has several benefits over traditional faceting:

• easier programmatic construction of complex or nested facets

• the nesting and structure offered by JSON makes facets easier to read and understand than the flat namespace of the traditional faceting API.

• first class support for metrics and analytics

• more standardized response format makes responses easier for clients to parse and use

Faceted search is about aggregating data and calculating metrics about that data.

There are two main types of facets:

• Facets that partition or categorize data (the domain) into multiple buckets

• Facets that calculate data for a given bucket (normally a metric, statistic or analytic function)

### Bucketing Facet Example

Here’s an example of a bucketing facet, that partitions documents into bucket based on the `cat` field (short for category), and returns the top 3 buckets:

curl

``````curl http://localhost:8983/solr/techproducts/query -d '
{
"query": "*:*",
"facet": {
"categories" : {
"type": "terms",
"field": "cat",
"limit": 3
}
}
}'``````

SolrJ

``````final TermsFacetMap categoryFacet = new TermsFacetMap("cat").setLimit(3);
final JsonQueryRequest request = new JsonQueryRequest()
.setQuery("*:*")
.withFacet("categories", categoryFacet);
QueryResponse queryResponse = request.process(solrClient, COLLECTION_NAME);``````

The response below shows us that 32 documents match the default root domain. and 12 documents have `cat:electronics`, 4 documents have `cat:currency`, etc.

``````[...]
"facets":{
"count":32,
"categories":{
"buckets":[{
"val":"electronics",
"count":12},
{
"val":"currency",
"count":4},
{
"val":"memory",
"count":3},
]
}
}``````

### Stat Facet Example

Stat (also called `aggregation` or `analytic`) facets are useful for displaying information derived from query results, in addition to those results themselves. For example, stat facets can be used to provide context to users on an e-commerce site looking for memory. The example below computes the average price (and other statistics) and would allow a user to gauge whether the memory stick in their cart is a good price.

curl

``````curl http://localhost:8983/solr/techproducts/query -d '
q=memory&
fq=inStock:true&
json.facet={
"avg_price" : "avg(price)",
"num_suppliers" : "unique(manu_exact)",
"median_weight" : "percentile(weight,50)"
}'``````

SolrJ

``````final JsonQueryRequest request = new JsonQueryRequest()
.setQuery("memory")
.withFilter("inStock:true")
.withStatFacet("avg_price", "avg(price)")
.withStatFacet("min_manufacturedate_dt", "min(manufacturedate_dt)")
.withStatFacet("num_suppliers", "unique(manu_exact)")
.withStatFacet("median_weight", "percentile(weight,50)");
QueryResponse queryResponse = request.process(solrClient, COLLECTION_NAME);``````

The response to the facet request above will start with documents matching the root domain (docs containing "memory" with inStock:true) followed by the requested statistics in a `facets` block:

`````` "facets" : {
"count" : 4,
"avg_price" : 109.9950008392334,
"num_suppliers" : 3,
"median_weight" : 352.0
}``````

## Types of Facets

There are 4 different types of bucketing facets, which behave in two different ways:

• "terms" and "range" facets produce multiple buckets and assign each document in the domain into one (or more) of these buckets

• "query" and "heatmap" facets always produce a single bucket which all documents in the domain belong to

Each of these facet-types are covered in detail below.

### Terms Facet

A `terms` facet buckets the domain based on the unique values in a field.

curl

``````curl http://localhost:8983/solr/techproducts/query -d '
{
"query": "*:*",
"facet": {
categories:{
"type": "terms",
"field" : "cat",
"limit" : 5
}
}
}'``````

SolrJ

``````final TermsFacetMap categoryFacet = new TermsFacetMap("cat").setLimit(5);
final JsonQueryRequest request = new JsonQueryRequest()
.setQuery("*:*")
.withFacet("categories", categoryFacet);
QueryResponse queryResponse = request.process(solrClient, COLLECTION_NAME);``````
ParameterDescription
fieldThe field name to facet over.
offsetUsed for paging, this skips the first N buckets. Defaults to 0.
limitLimits the number of buckets returned. Defaults to 10.
sort

Specifies how to sort the buckets produced.

“count” specifies document count, “index” sorts by the index (natural) order of the bucket value. One can also sort by any facet function / statistic that occurs in the bucket. The default is “count desc”. This parameter may also be specified in JSON like `sort:{count:desc}`. The sort order may either be “asc” or “desc”

overrequest

Number of buckets beyond the `limit` to internally request from shards during a distributed search.

Larger values can increase the accuracy of the final "Top Terms" returned when the individual shards have very diff top terms.

The default of `-1` causes a hueristic to be applied based on the other options specified.

refineIf `true`, turns on distributed facet refining. This uses a second phase to retrieve any buckets needed for the final result from shards that did not include those buckets in their initial internal results, so that every shard contributes to every returned bucket in this facet and any sub-facets. This makes counts & stats for returned buckets exact.
overrefine

Number of buckets beyond the `limit` to consider internally during a distributed search when determining which buckets to refine.

Larger values can increase the accuracy of the final "Top Terms" returned when the individual shards have very diff top terms, and the current `sort` option can result in refinement pushing terms lower down the sorted list (ex: `sort:"count asc"`)

The default of `-1` causes a hueristic to be applied based on other options specified.

mincountOnly return buckets with a count of at least this number. Defaults to 1.
missingA boolean that specifies if a special “missing” bucket should be returned that is defined by documents without a value in the field. Defaults to false.
numBucketsA boolean. If true, adds “numBuckets” to the response, an integer representing the number of buckets for the facet (as opposed to the number of buckets returned). Defaults to false.
allBucketsA boolean. If true, adds an “allBuckets” bucket to the response, representing the union of all of the buckets. For multi-valued fields, this is different than a bucket for all of the documents in the domain since a single document can belong to multiple buckets. Defaults to false.
prefixOnly produce buckets for terms starting with the specified prefix.
facetAggregations, metrics or nested facets that will be calculated for every returned bucket
method

This parameter indicates the facet algorithm to use:

• "dv" DocValues, collect into ordinal array

• "uif" UnInvertedField, collect into ordinal array

• "dvhash" DocValues, collect into hash - improves efficiency over high cardinality fields

• "enum" TermsEnum then intersect DocSet (stream-able)

• "stream" Presently equivalent to "enum"

• "smart" Pick the best method for the field type (this is the default)

prelim_sortAn optional parameter for specifying an approximation of the final `sort` to use during initial collection of top buckets when the `sort` parameter is very costly.

### Query Facet

The query facet produces a single bucket of documents that match the domain as well as the specified query.

curl

``````curl http://localhost:8983/solr/techproducts/query -d '
{
"query": "*:*",
"facet": {
"high_popularity": {
"type": "query",
"q": "popularity:[8 TO 10]"
}
}
}'``````

SolrJ

``````QueryFacetMap queryFacet = new QueryFacetMap("popularity:[8 TO 10]");
final JsonQueryRequest request = new JsonQueryRequest()
.setQuery("*:*")
.withFacet("high_popularity", queryFacet);
QueryResponse queryResponse = request.process(solrClient, COLLECTION_NAME);``````

Users may also specify sub-facets (either "bucketing" facets or metrics):

curl

``````curl http://localhost:8983/solr/techproducts/query -d '
{
"query": "*:*",
"facet": {
"high_popularity": {
"type": "query",
"q": "popularity:[8 TO 10]",
"facet" : {
"average_price" : "avg(price)"
}
}
}
}'``````

SolrJ

``````QueryFacetMap queryFacet = new QueryFacetMap("popularity:[8 TO 10]")
.withStatSubFacet("average_price", "avg(price)");
final JsonQueryRequest request = new JsonQueryRequest()
.setQuery("*:*")
.withFacet("high_popularity", queryFacet);
QueryResponse queryResponse = request.process(solrClient, COLLECTION_NAME);``````

Example response:

``````"high_popularity" : {
"count" : 36,
"average_price" : 36.75
}``````

### Range Facet

The range facet produces multiple buckets over a date or numeric field.

curl

``````curl http://localhost:8983/solr/techproducts/query -d '
{
"query": "*:*",
"facet": {
"prices": {
"type": "range",
"field": "price",
"start": 0,
"end": 100,
"gap": 20
}
}
}'``````

SolrJ

``````RangeFacetMap rangeFacet = new RangeFacetMap("price", 0.0, 100.0, 20.0);
final JsonQueryRequest request = new JsonQueryRequest()
.setQuery("*:*")
.withFacet("prices", rangeFacet);
QueryResponse queryResponse = request.process(solrClient, COLLECTION_NAME);``````

The output from the range facet above would look a bit like:

``````"prices":{
"buckets":[
{
"val":0.0,  // the bucket value represents the start of each range.  This bucket covers 0-20
"count":5},
{
"val":20.0,
"count":0},
{
"val":40.0,
"count":0},
{
"val":60.0,
"count":1},
{
"val":80.0,
"count":1}
]
}``````

#### Range Facet Parameters

Range facet parameter names and semantics largely mirror facet.range query-parameter style faceting. For example "start" here corresponds to "facet.range.start" in a facet.range command.

ParameterDescription
fieldThe numeric field or date field to produce range buckets from.
startLower bound of the ranges.
endUpper bound of the ranges.
gapSize of each range bucket produced.
hardendA boolean, which if true means that the last bucket will end at “end” even if it is less than “gap” wide. If false, the last bucket will be “gap” wide, which may extend past “end”.
other

This parameter indicates that in addition to the counts for each range constraint between `start` and `end`, counts should also be computed for…

• "before" all records with field values lower then lower bound of the first range

• "after" all records with field values greater then the upper bound of the last range

• "between" all records with field values between the start and end bounds of all ranges

• "none" compute none of this information

• "all" shortcut for before, between, and after

include

By default, the ranges used to compute range faceting between `start` and `end` are inclusive of their lower bounds and exclusive of the upper bounds. The “before” range is exclusive and the “after” range is inclusive. This default, equivalent to "lower" below, will not result in double counting at the boundaries. The `include` parameter may be any combination of the following options:

• "lower" all gap based ranges include their lower bound

• "upper" all gap based ranges include their upper bound

• "edge" the first and last gap ranges include their edge bounds (i.e., lower for the first one, upper for the last one) even if the corresponding upper/lower option is not specified

• "outer" the “before” and “after” ranges will be inclusive of their bounds, even if the first or last ranges already include those boundaries.

• "all" shorthand for lower, upper, edge, outer

facetAggregations, metrics, or nested facets that will be calculated for every returned bucket
ranges

List of arbitrary range when specified calculates facet on given ranges rather than `start`, `gap` and `end`. With `start`, `end` and `gap` the width of the range or bucket is always fixed. If range faceting needs to computed on varying range width then, `ranges` should be specified.

• Specifying `start`, `end` or `gap` along with `ranges` is disallowed and request would fail.

• When `ranges` are specified in the range facet, `hardend`, `include` and `other` parameters are ignored.

Refer Arbitrary Range

#### Arbitrary Range

An arbitrary range consists of from and to values over which range bucket is computed. This range can be specified in two syntax.

ParameterDescription
fromThe lower bound of the range. When not specified defaults to `*`.
toThe upper bound of the range. When not specified defaults to `*`.
inclusive_fromA boolean, which if true means that include the lower bound `from`. This defaults to `true`.
inclusive_toA boolean, which if true means that include the upper bound `to`. This default to `false`.
range

The range is specified as string. This is semantically similar to `facet.interval`

• When `range` is specified then, all the above parameters `from`, `to` and etc in the range are ignored

• `range` always start with `(` or `[` and ends with `)` or `]`

• `(` - exclude lower bound

• `[` - include lower bound

• `)` - exclude upper bound

• `]` - include upper bound

For example, For range `(5,10]` 5 is excluded and 10 is included

##### other with ranges

`other` parameter is ignored when `ranges` is specified but there are ways to achieve same behavior with `ranges`.

• `before` - This is equivalent to `[*,some_val)` or just specifying `to` value

• `after` - This is equivalent to `(som_val, *]` or just specifying `from` value

• `between` - This is equivalent to specifying `start`, `end` as `from` and `to` respectively

##### include with ranges

`include` parameter is ignored when `ranges` is specified but there are ways to achieve same behavior with `ranges`. `lower`, `upper`, `outer`, `edge` all can be achieved using combination of `inclusive_to` and `inclusive_from`.

Range facet with `ranges`

``````curl http://localhost:8983/solr/techproducts/query -d '
{
"query": "*:*",
"facet": {
"prices": {
"type": "range",
"field": "price",
"ranges": [
{
"from": 0,
"to": 20,
"inclusive_from": true,
"inclusive_to": false
},
{
"range": "[40,100)"
}
]
}
}
}'``````

The output from the range facet above would look a bit like:

``````{
"prices": {
"buckets": [
{
"val": "[0,20)",
"count": 5
},
{
"val": "[40,100)",
"count": 2
}
]
}
}``````
 When `range` is specified, its value in the request is used as key in the response. In the other case, key is generated using `from`, `to`, `inclusive_to` and `inclusive_from`. Currently, custom `key` is not supported.

### Heatmap Facet

The `heatmap` facet generates a 2D grid of facet counts for documents having spatial data in each grid cell.

This feature is primarily documented in the spatial section of the reference guide. The key parameters are `type` to specify `heatmap` and `field` to indicate a spatial RPT field. The rest of the parameter names use the same names and semantics mirroring facet.heatmap query-parameter style faceting, albeit without the "facet.heatmap." prefix. For example `geom` here corresponds to `facet.heatmap.geom` in a facet.heatmap command.

 Unlike other facets that partition the domain into buckets, `heatmap` facets do not currently support Nested Facets.

curl

``````curl http://localhost:8983/solr/spatialdata/query -d '
{
"query": "*:*",
"facet": {
"locations": {
"type": "heatmap",
"field": "location_srpt",
"geom": "[\"50 20\" TO \"180 90\"]",
"gridLevel": 4
}
}
}'``````

SolrJ

``````final JsonQueryRequest request = new JsonQueryRequest()
.setQuery("*:*")
.setLimit(0)
.withFacet("locations", new HeatmapFacetMap("location_srpt")
.setHeatmapFormat(HeatmapFacetMap.HeatmapFormat.INTS2D)
.setRegionQuery("[\"50 20\" TO \"180 90\"]")
.setGridLevel(4)
);``````

And the facet response will look like:

``````{
"facets": {
"locations":{
"gridLevel":1,
"columns":6,
"rows":4,
"minX":-180.0,
"maxX":90.0,
"minY":-90.0,
"maxY":90.0,
"counts_ints2D":[[68,1270,459,5359,39456,1713],[123,10472,13620,7777,18376,6239],[88,6,3898,989,1314,255],[0,0,30,1,0,1]]
}
}
}``````

### Stat Facet Functions

Unlike all the facets discussed so far, Aggregation functions (also called facet functions, analytic functions, or metrics) do not partition data into buckets. Instead, they calculate something over all the documents in the domain.

AggregationExampleDescription
sum`sum(sales)`summation of numeric values
avg`avg(popularity)`average of numeric values
min`min(salary)`minimum value
max`max(mul(price,popularity))`maximum value
missing`missing(author)`number of documents which do not have value for given field or function
countvals`countvals(author)`number of values for a given field or function
unique`unique(author)`number of unique values of the given field. Beyond 100 values it yields not exact estimate
uniqueBlock`uniqueBlock(_root_)` or `uniqueBlock($fldref)` where `fldref=_root_`same as above with smaller footprint strictly for counting the number of Block Join blocks. The given field must be unique across blocks, and only singlevalued string fields are supported, docValues are recommended. `uniqueBlock({!v=type:parent})` or `uniqueBlock({!v=$qryref})` where `qryref=type:parent`same as above, but using bitset of the given query to aggregate hits.
hll`hll(author)`distributed cardinality estimate via hyper-log-log algorithm
percentile`percentile(salary,50,75,99,99.9)`Percentile estimates via t-digest algorithm. When sorting by this metric, the first percentile listed is used as the sort value.
sumsq`sumsq(rent)`sum of squares of field or function
variance`variance(rent)`variance of numeric field or function
stddev`stddev(rent)`standard deviation of field or function
relatedness`relatedness('popularity:[100 TO *]','inStock:true')`A function for computing a relatedness score of the documents in the domain to a Foreground set, relative to a Background set (both defined as queries). This is primarily for use when building Semantic Knowledge Graphs.

Numeric aggregation functions such as `avg` can be on any numeric field, or on a nested function of multiple numeric fields such as `avg(div(popularity,price))`.

The most common way of requesting an aggregation function is as a simple String containing the expression you wish to compute:

curl

``````curl http://localhost:8983/solr/techproducts/query -d '
{
"query": "*:*",
"filter": [
"price:[1.0 TO *]",
"popularity:[0 TO 10]"
],
"facet": {
"avg_value": "avg(div(popularity,price))"
}
}'``````

SolrJ

``````final JsonQueryRequest request = new JsonQueryRequest()
.setQuery("*:*")
.withFilter("price:[1.0 TO *]")
.withFilter("popularity:[0 TO 10]")
.withStatFacet("min_manu_id_s", "min(manu_id_s)")
.withStatFacet("avg_value", "avg(div(popularity,price))");
QueryResponse queryResponse = request.process(solrClient, COLLECTION_NAME);``````

An expanded form allows for Local Parameters to be specified. These may be used explicitly by some specialized aggregations such as `relatedness()`, but can also be used as parameter references to make aggregation expressions more readable, with out needing to use (global) request parameters:

curl

``````curl http://localhost:8983/solr/techproducts/query -d '
{
"query": "*:*",
"filter": [
"price:[1.0 TO *]",
"popularity:[0 TO 10]"
],
"facet": {
"avg_value" : {
"type": "func",
"func": "avg(div($numer,$denom))",
"numer": "mul(popularity,3.0)",
"denom": "price"
}
}
}'``````

SolrJ

``````final  Map<String, Object> expandedStatFacet = new HashMap<>();
expandedStatFacet.put("type", "func");
expandedStatFacet.put("func", "avg(div($numer,$denom))");
expandedStatFacet.put("numer", "mul(popularity,3.0)");
expandedStatFacet.put("denom", "price");
final JsonQueryRequest request = new JsonQueryRequest()
.setQuery("*:*")
.withFilter("price:[1.0 TO *]")
.withFilter("popularity:[0 TO 10]")
.withFacet("avg_value", expandedStatFacet);
QueryResponse queryResponse = request.process(solrClient, COLLECTION_NAME);``````

## Nested Facets

Nested facets, or sub-facets, allow one to nest facet commands under any facet command that partitions the domain into buckets (i.e., `terms`, `range`, `query`). These sub-facets are then evaluated against the domains defined by the set of all documents in each bucket of their parent.

The syntax is identical to top-level facets - just add a `facet` command to the facet command block of the parent facet. Technically, every facet command is actually a sub-facet since we start off with a single facet bucket with a domain defined by the main query and filters.

### Nested Facet Example

Let’s start off with a simple non-nested terms facet on the category field `cat`:

curl

``````curl http://localhost:8983/solr/techproducts/query -d '
{
"query": "*:*",
"facet": {
"categories": {
"type": "terms",
"field": "cat",
"limit": 3
}
}
}'``````

SolrJ

``````final TermsFacetMap categoryFacet = new TermsFacetMap("cat").setLimit(3);
final JsonQueryRequest request = new JsonQueryRequest()
.setQuery("*:*")
.withFacet("categories", categoryFacet);
QueryResponse queryResponse = request.process(solrClient, COLLECTION_NAME);``````

The response for the facet above will show the top category and the number of documents that falls into each category bucket. Nested facets can be used to gather additional information about each bucket of documents. For example, using the nested facet below, we can find the top categories as well as who the leading manufacturer is in each category:

curl

``````curl http://localhost:8983/solr/techproducts/query -d '
{
"query": "*:*",
"facet": {
"categories": {
"type": "terms",
"field": "cat",
"limit": 3,
"facet": {
"top_manufacturer": {
"type": "terms",
"field": "manu_id_s",
"limit": 1
}
}
}
}
}'``````

SolrJ

``````final TermsFacetMap topCategoriesFacet = new TermsFacetMap("cat").setLimit(3);
final TermsFacetMap topManufacturerFacet = new TermsFacetMap("manu_id_s").setLimit(1);
topCategoriesFacet.withSubFacet("top_manufacturers", topManufacturerFacet);
final JsonQueryRequest request = new JsonQueryRequest()
.setQuery("*:*")
.withFacet("categories", topCategoriesFacet);
QueryResponse queryResponse = request.process(solrClient, COLLECTION_NAME);``````

And the response will look something like:

``````"facets":{
"count":32,
"categories":{
"buckets":[{
"val":"electronics",
"count":12,
"top_manufacturer":{
"buckets":[{
"val":"corsair",
"count":3}]}},
{
"val":"currency",
"count":4,
"top_manufacturer":{
"buckets":[{
"val":"boa",
"count":1}]}}]}}``````

### Sorting Facets By Nested Functions

The default sort for a field or terms facet is by bucket count descending. We can optionally `sort` ascending or descending by any facet function that appears in each bucket.

curl

``````curl http://localhost:8983/solr/techproducts/query -d '
{
"query": "*:*",
"facet": {
"categories":{
"type" : "terms",     // terms facet creates a bucket for each indexed term in the field
"field" : "cat",
"limit": 3,
"sort" : "avg_price desc",
"facet" : {
"avg_price" : "avg(price)",
}
}
}
}'``````

SolrJ

``````final TermsFacetMap topCategoriesFacet = new TermsFacetMap("cat")
.setLimit(3)
.withStatSubFacet("avg_price", "avg(price)")
.setSort("avg_price desc");
final JsonQueryRequest request = new JsonQueryRequest()
.setQuery("*:*")
.withFacet("categories", topCategoriesFacet);
QueryResponse queryResponse = request.process(solrClient, COLLECTION_NAME);``````

In some situations the desired `sort` may be an aggregation function that is very costly to compute for every bucket. A `prelim_sort` option can be used to specify an approximation of the `sort`, for initially ranking the buckets to determine the top candidates (based on the `limit` and `overrequest`). Only after the top candidate buckets have been refined, will the actual `sort` be used.

``````{
categories:{
type : terms,
field : cat,
refine: true,
limit: 10,
overrequest: 100,
prelim_sort: "sales_rank desc",
sort : "prod_quality desc",
facet : {
prod_quality : "avg(div(prod(rating,sales_rank),prod(num_returns,price)))"
sales_rank : "sum(sales_rank)"
}
}
}``````

## Changing the Domain

As discussed above, facets compute buckets or statistics based on their "domain" of documents.

• By default, top-level facets use the set of all documents matching the main query as their domain.

• Nested "sub-facets" are computed for every bucket of their parent facet, using a domain containing all documents in that bucket.

In addition to this default behavior, domains can be also be widened, narrowed, or changed entirely. The JSON Faceting API supports modifying domains through its `domain` property. This is discussed in more detail here

## Special Stat Facet Functions

Most stat facet functions (`avg`, `sumsq`, etc.) allow users to perform math computations on groups of documents. A few functions are more involved though, and deserve an explanation of their own. These are described in more detail in the sections below.

### uniqueBlock() and Block Join Counts

When a collection contains Nested Documents, the `blockChildren` and `blockParent` domain changes can be useful when searching for parent documents and you want to compute stats against all of the affected children documents (or vice versa). But if you only need to know the count of all the blocks that exist in the current domain, a more efficient option is the `uniqueBlock()` aggregate function.

Suppose we have products with multiple SKUs, and we want to count products for each color.

``````{
"id": "1", "type": "product", "name": "Solr T-Shirt",
"_childDocuments_": [
{ "id": "11", "type": "SKU", "color": "Red",  "size": "L" },
{ "id": "12", "type": "SKU", "color": "Blue", "size": "L" },
{ "id": "13", "type": "SKU", "color": "Red",  "size": "M" }
]
},
{
"id": "2", "type": "product", "name": "Solr T-Shirt",
"_childDocuments_": [
{ "id": "21", "type": "SKU", "color": "Blue", "size": "S" }
]
}``````

When searching against a set of SKU documents, we can ask for a facet on color, with a nested statistic counting all the "blocks" — aka: products:

``````color: {
type: terms,
field: color,
limit: -1,
facet: {
productsCount: "uniqueBlock(_root_)"
// or "uniqueBlock({!v=type:product})"
}
}``````

and get:

``````color:{
buckets:[
{ val:Blue, count:2, productsCount:2 },
{ val:Red, count:2, productsCount:1 }
]
}``````

Please notice that `_root_` is an internal field added by Lucene to each child document to reference on parent one. Aggregation `uniqueBlock(_root_)` is functionally equivalent to `unique(_root_)`, but is optimized for nested documents block structure. It’s recommended to define `limit: -1` for `uniqueBlock` calculation, like in above example, since default value of `limit` parameter is `10`, while `uniqueBlock` is supposed to be much faster with `-1`.

### relatedness() and Semantic Knowledge Graphs

The `relatedness(…​)` stat function allows for sets of documents to be scored relative to Foreground and Background sets of documents, for the purposes of finding ad-hoc relationships that make up a "Semantic Knowledge Graph":

At its heart, the Semantic Knowledge Graph leverages an inverted index, along with a complementary uninverted index, to represent nodes (terms) and edges (the documents within intersecting postings lists for multiple terms/nodes). This provides a layer of indirection between each pair of nodes and their corresponding edge, enabling edges to materialize dynamically from underlying corpus statistics. As a result, any combination of nodes can have edges to any other nodes materialize and be scored to reveal latent relationships between the nodes.

The `relatedness(…​)` function is used to "score" these relationships, relative to "Foreground" and "Background" sets of documents, specified in the function params as queries.

Unlike most aggregation functions, the `relatedness(…​)` function is aware of whether and how it’s used in Nested Facets. It evaluates the query defining the current bucket independently from its parent/ancestor buckets, and intersects those documents with a "Foreground Set" defined by the foreground query combined with the ancestor buckets. The result is then compared to a similar intersection done against the "Background Set" (defined exclusively by background query) to see if there is a positive, or negative, correlation between the current bucket and the Foreground Set, relative to the Background Set.

 The semantics of `relatedness(…​)` in an `allBuckets` context is currently undefined. Accordingly, although the `relatedness(…​)` stat may be specified for a facet request that also specifies `allBuckets:true`, the `allBuckets` bucket itself will not include a relatedness calculation.
 While it’s very common to define the Background Set as `*:*`, or some other super-set of the Foreground Query, it is not strictly required. The `relatedness(…​)` function can be used to compare the statistical relatedness of sets of documents to orthogonal foreground/background queries.

#### relatedness() Options

When using the extended `type:func` syntax for specifying a `relatedness()` aggregation, an optional `min_popularity` (float) option can be used to specify a lower bound on the `foreground_popularity` and `background_popularity` values, that must be met in order for the `relatedness` score to be valid — If this `min_popularity` is not met, then the `relatedness` score will be `-Infinity`.

The default implementation for calculating `relatedness()` domain correlation depends on the type of facet being calculated. Generic domain correlation is calculated per-term, by selectively retrieving a DocSet for each bucket-associated query (consulting the `filterCache`) and calculating DocSet intersections with "foreground" and "background" sets. For term facets (especially over high-cardinality fields) this approach can lead to `filterCache` thrashing; accordingly, `relatedness()` over term facets defaults where possible to an approach that collects facet counts directly over all multiple domains in a single sweep (never touching the `filterCache`). It is possible to explicitly control this "single sweep" collection by setting the extended `type:func` syntax `sweep_collection` option to `true` (the default) or `false` (to disable sweep collection).

 Disabling sweep collection for `relatedness()` stats over low-cardinality fields may yield a performance benefit, provided the `filterCache` is sufficiently large to accommodate an entry for each value in the associated field without inducing thrashing for anticipated use patterns. A reasonable heuristic is that fields of cardinality less than 1,000 may benefit from disabling sweep. This heuristic is not used to determine default behavior, particularly because non-sweep collection can so easily induce `filterCache` thrashing, with system-wide detrimental effects.
``````{ "type": "func",
"func": "relatedness($fore,$back)",
"min_popularity": 0.001,
}``````

This can be particularly useful when using a descending sorting on `relatedness()` with foreground and background queries that are disjoint, to ensure the "top buckets" are all relevant to both sets.

 When sorting on `relatedness(…​)` requests can be processed much more quickly by adding a `prelim_sort: "count desc"` option. Increasing the `overrequest` can help improve the accuracy of the top buckets.

#### Semantic Knowledge Graph Example

 1 Use the entire collection as our "Background Set" 2 Use a query for "age >= 35" to define our (initial) "Foreground Set" 3 For both the top level `hobbies` facet & the sub-facet on `state` we will be sorting on the `relatedness(…​)` values 4 In both calls to the `relatedness(…​)` function, we use Parameter Variables to refer to the previously defined `fore` and `back` queries.
 1 Even though `hobbies:golf` has a lower total facet `count` then `hobbies:painting`, it has a higher `relatedness` score, indicating that relative to the Background Set (the entire collection) Golf has a stronger correlation to our Foreground Set (people age 35+) then Painting. 2 The number of documents matching `age:[35 TO *]` and `hobbies:golf` is 31.25% of the total number of documents in the Background Set 3 37.5% of the documents in the Background Set match `hobbies:golf` 4 The state of Arizona (AZ) has a positive relatedness correlation with the nested Foreground Set (people ages 35+ who play Golf) compared to the Background Set — i.e., "People in Arizona are statistically more likely to be '35+ year old Golfers' then the country as a whole." 5 The state of Colorado (CO) has a negative correlation with the nested Foreground Set — i.e., "People in Colorado are statistically less likely to be '35+ year old Golfers' then the country as a whole." 6 The number documents matching `age:[35 TO *]` and `hobbies:golf` and `state:AZ` is 18.75% of the total number of documents in the Background Set 7 50% of the documents in the Background Set match `state:AZ`