# Enabling SSL

Solr can encrypt communications to and from clients and between nodes in SolrCloud mode with Secure Sockets Layer encryption (SSL).

This section describes enabling SSL using a self-signed certificate.

For background on SSL certificates and keys, see http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/SSL-Certificates-HOWTO/.

## Configuring Solr for SSL

### Generate a Self-Signed Certificate and a Key

To generate a self-signed certificate and a single key that will be used to authenticate both the server and the client, we’ll use the JDK `keytool` command and create a separate keystore. This keystore will also be used as a truststore below. It’s possible to use the keystore that comes with the JDK for these purposes, and to use a separate truststore, but those options aren’t covered here.

Run the commands below in the `server/etc/` directory in the binary Solr distribution. It’s assumed that you have the JDK `keytool` utility on your `PATH`, and that `openssl` is also on your `PATH`. See https://www.openssl.org/related/binaries.html for OpenSSL binaries for Windows and Solaris.

The `-ext SAN=…​` `keytool` option allows you to specify all the DNS names and/or IP addresses that will be allowed during hostname verification if you choose to require it.

In addition to `localhost` and `127.0.0.1`, this example includes a LAN IP address `192.168.1.3` for the machine the Solr nodes will be running on:

``$keytool -genkeypair -alias solr-ssl -keyalg RSA -keysize 2048 -keypass secret -storepass secret -validity 9999 -keystore solr-ssl.keystore.p12 -storetype PKCS12 -ext SAN=DNS:localhost,IP:192.168.1.3,IP:127.0.0.1 -dname "CN=localhost, OU=Organizational Unit, O=Organization, L=Location, ST=State, C=Country"`` The above command will create a keystore file named `solr-ssl.keystore.p12` in the current directory. ### Convert the Certificate and Key to PEM Format for Use with curl Convert the PKCS12 format keystore, including both the certificate and the key, into PEM format using the `openssl` command: ``$ openssl pkcs12 -in solr-ssl.keystore.p12 -out solr-ssl.pem``

If you want to use curl on OS X Yosemite (10.10), you’ll need to create a certificate-only version of the PEM format, as follows:

``$openssl pkcs12 -nokeys -in solr-ssl.keystore.p12 -out solr-ssl.cacert.pem`` The Solr Control Script is already setup to pass SSL-related Java system properties to the JVM. To activate the SSL settings, uncomment and update the set of properties beginning with `SOLR_SSL_*` in `bin/solr.in.sh` on *nix systems or `bin\solr.in.cmd` on Windows. *nix (solr.in.sh)  If you setup Solr as a service on Linux using the steps outlined in Taking Solr to Production, then make these changes in `/var/solr/solr.in.sh`. ``````# Enables HTTPS. It is implicitly true if you set SOLR_SSL_KEY_STORE. Use this config # to enable https module with custom jetty configuration. SOLR_SSL_ENABLED=true # Uncomment to set SSL-related system properties # Be sure to update the paths to the correct keystore for your environment SOLR_SSL_KEY_STORE=etc/solr-ssl.keystore.p12 SOLR_SSL_KEY_STORE_PASSWORD=secret SOLR_SSL_TRUST_STORE=etc/solr-ssl.keystore.p12 SOLR_SSL_TRUST_STORE_PASSWORD=secret # Require clients to authenticate SOLR_SSL_NEED_CLIENT_AUTH=false # Enable clients to authenticate (but not require) SOLR_SSL_WANT_CLIENT_AUTH=false # SSL Certificates contain host/ip "peer name" information that is validated by default. Setting # this to false can be useful to disable these checks when re-using a certificate on many hosts SOLR_SSL_CHECK_PEER_NAME=true`````` Windows (solr.in.cmd) ``````REM Enables HTTPS. It is implicitly true if you set SOLR_SSL_KEY_STORE. Use this config REM to enable https module with custom jetty configuration. set SOLR_SSL_ENABLED=true REM Uncomment to set SSL-related system properties REM Be sure to update the paths to the correct keystore for your environment set SOLR_SSL_KEY_STORE=etc/solr-ssl.keystore.p12 set SOLR_SSL_KEY_STORE_PASSWORD=secret set SOLR_SSL_TRUST_STORE=etc/solr-ssl.keystore.p12 set SOLR_SSL_TRUST_STORE_PASSWORD=secret REM Require clients to authenticate set SOLR_SSL_NEED_CLIENT_AUTH=false REM Enable clients to authenticate (but not require) set SOLR_SSL_WANT_CLIENT_AUTH=false REM SSL Certificates contain host/ip "peer name" information that is validated by default. Setting REM this to false can be useful to disable these checks when re-using a certificate on many hosts set SOLR_SSL_CHECK_PEER_NAME=true``````  Client Authentication Settings Enable either `SOLR_SSL_NEED_CLIENT_AUTH` or `SOLR_SSL_WANT_CLIENT_AUTH` but not both at the same time. They are mutually exclusive and Jetty will select one of them which may not be what you expect. `SOLR_SSL_CLIENT_HOSTNAME_VERIFICATION` should be set to false if you want to disable hostname verification. When you start Solr, the `bin/solr` script includes these settings and will pass them as system properties to the JVM. If you are running Solr in standalone mode, you can skip to Run Single Node Solr using SSL. If you are using SolrCloud, however, you need to Configure ZooKeeper before starting Solr. ### Password Distribution via Hadoop Credential Store Solr supports reading keystore and truststore passwords from Hadoop credential store. This approach can be beneficial if password rotation and distribution is already handled by credential stores. If you are not using a Hadoop credential store, you can skip this step. Hadoop credential store can be used with Solr using the following two steps. #### Provide a Hadoop Credential Store Create a Hadoop credstore file and define the entries below with the actual keystore passwords. ``````solr.jetty.keystore.password solr.jetty.truststore.password javax.net.ssl.keyStorePassword javax.net.ssl.trustStorePassword`````` Note that if the `javax.net.ssl.*` configurations are not set, they will fallback to the corresponding `solr.jetty.*` configurations. #### Configure Solr to use Hadoop Credential Store Solr requires three parameters to be configured in order to use the credential store file for keystore passwords. `solr.ssl.credential.provider.chain` The credential provider chain. This should be set to `hadoop`. `SOLR_HADOOP_CREDENTIAL_PROVIDER_PATH` The path to the credential store file. `HADOOP_CREDSTORE_PASSWORD` The password to the credential store. *nix (solr.in.sh) ``````SOLR_OPTS=" -Dsolr.ssl.credential.provider.chain=hadoop" SOLR_HADOOP_CREDENTIAL_PROVIDER_PATH=localjceks://file/home/solr/hadoop-credential-provider.jceks HADOOP_CREDSTORE_PASSWORD="credStorePass123"`````` Windows (solr.in.cmd) ``````set SOLR_OPTS=" -Dsolr.ssl.credential.provider.chain=hadoop" set SOLR_HADOOP_CREDENTIAL_PROVIDER_PATH=localjceks://file/home/solr/hadoop-credential-provider.jceks set HADOOP_CREDSTORE_PASSWORD="credStorePass123"`````` ### Configure ZooKeeper  ZooKeeper does not support encrypted communication with clients like Solr. There are several related JIRA tickets where SSL support is being planned/worked on: ZOOKEEPER-235; ZOOKEEPER-236; ZOOKEEPER-1000; and ZOOKEEPER-2120. After creating the keystore described above and before you start any SolrCloud nodes, you must configure your Solr cluster properties in ZooKeeper so that Solr nodes know to communicate via SSL. This section assumes you have created and started an external ZooKeeper. See Setting Up an External ZooKeeper Ensemble for more information. The `urlScheme` cluster-wide property needs to be set to `https` before any Solr node starts up. The examples below use the `zkcli` tool that comes with Solr to do this. *nix Command ``$ server/scripts/cloud-scripts/zkcli.sh -zkhost server1:2181,server2:2181,server3:2181 -cmd clusterprop -name urlScheme -val https``

Windows Command

``C:\> server\scripts\cloud-scripts\zkcli.bat -zkhost server1:2181,server2:2181,server3:2181 -cmd clusterprop -name urlScheme -val https``

Be sure to use the correct `zkhost` value for your system. If you have set up your ZooKeeper ensemble to use a chroot for Solr, make sure to include it in the `zkhost` string, e.g., `-zkhost server1:2181,server2:2181,server3:2181/solr`.

### Update Cluster Properties for Existing Collections

If you are using SolrCloud and have collections created before enabling SSL, you will need to update the cluster properties to use HTTPS.

If you do not have existing collections or are not using SolrCloud, you can skip ahead and start Solr.

Updating cluster properties can be done with the Collections API CLUSTERPROP command, as in this example (update the hostname and port as appropriate for your system):

``$http://localhost:8983/solr/admin/collections?action=CLUSTERPROP&name=urlScheme&val=https`` This command only needs to be run on one node of the cluster, the change will apply to all nodes. Once this and all other steps are complete, you can go ahead and start Solr. ## Starting Solr After Enabling SSL ### Run Single Node Solr using SSL Start Solr using the Solr control script as shown in the examples below. Customize the values for the parameters shown as needed and add any used in your system. *nix Command ``$ bin/solr -p 8984``

Windows Command

``C:\> bin\solr.cmd -p 8984``

### Run SolrCloud with SSL

 If you have defined `ZK_HOST` in `solr.in.sh`/`solr.in.cmd` (see instructions) you can omit `-z ` from all of the `bin/solr`/`bin\solr.cmd` commands below.

Start each Solr node with the Solr control script as shown in the examples below. Customize the values for the parameters shown as necessary and add any used in your system.

If you created the SSL key without all DNS names or IP addresses on which Solr nodes run, you can tell Solr to skip hostname verification for inter-node communications by setting the `-Dsolr.ssl.checkPeerName=false` system property.

\*nix

``$bin/solr -cloud -s cloud/node1 -z server1:2181,server2:2181,server3:2181 -p 8984`` Windows ``````C:\> bin\solr.cmd -cloud -s cloud\node1 -z server1:2181,server2:2181,server3:2181 `````` ## Example Client Actions  curl on OS X Mavericks (10.9) has degraded SSL support. For more information and workarounds to allow one-way SSL, see http://curl.haxx.se/mail/archive-2013-10/0036.html. curl on OS X Yosemite (10.10) is improved - 2-way SSL is possible - see http://curl.haxx.se/mail/archive-2014-10/0053.html. The curl commands in the following sections will not work with the system `curl` on OS X Yosemite (10.10). Instead, the certificate supplied with the `-E` parameter must be in PKCS12 format, and the file supplied with the `--cacert` parameter must contain only the CA certificate, and no key (see above for instructions on creating this file): ``$ curl -E solr-ssl.keystore.p12:secret --cacert solr-ssl.cacert.pem ...``

### Create a SolrCloud Collection using bin/solr

Create a 2-shard, replicationFactor=1 collection named mycollection using the `_default` configset:

The `create` action will pass the `SOLR_SSL_*` properties set in your include file to the SolrJ code used to create the collection.

### Retrieve SolrCloud Cluster Status using curl

To get the resulting cluster status (again, if you have not enabled client authentication, remove the `-E solr-ssl.pem:secret` option):

``\$ curl -E solr-ssl.pem:secret --cacert solr-ssl.pem "https://localhost:8984/solr/admin/collections?action=CLUSTERSTATUS&indent=on"``

You should get a response that looks like this:

``````{
"status":0,
"QTime":2041},
"cluster":{
"collections":{
"mycollection":{
"shards":{
"shard1":{
"range":"80000000-ffffffff",
"state":"active",
"replicas":{"core_node1":{
"state":"active",
"base_url":"https://127.0.0.1:8984/solr",
"core":"mycollection_shard1_replica1",
"node_name":"127.0.0.1:8984_solr",
"shard2":{
"range":"0-7fffffff",
"state":"active",
"replicas":{"core_node2":{
"state":"active",
"base_url":"https://127.0.0.1:7574/solr",
"core":"mycollection_shard2_replica1",
"node_name":"127.0.0.1:7574_solr",
"maxShardsPerNode":"1",
"router":{"name":"compositeId"},
"replicationFactor":"1"}},
"properties":{"urlScheme":"https"}}}``````

### Index Documents using post.jar

Use `post.jar` to index some example documents to the SolrCloud collection created above:

``````cd example/exampledocs

java -Djavax.net.ssl.keyStorePassword=secret -Djavax.net.ssl.keyStore=../../server/etc/solr-ssl.keystore.p12 -Djavax.net.ssl.trustStore=../../server/etc/solr-ssl.keystore.p12 -Djavax.net.ssl.trustStorePassword=secret -Durl=https://localhost:8984/solr/mycollection/update -jar post.jar *.xml``````

### Query Using curl

Use curl to query the SolrCloud collection created above, from a directory containing the PEM formatted certificate and key created above (e.g., `example/etc/`) - if you have not enabled client authentication (system property `-Djetty.ssl.clientAuth=true)`, then you can remove the `-E solr-ssl.pem:secret` option:

``curl -E solr-ssl.pem:secret --cacert solr-ssl.pem "https://localhost:8984/solr/mycollection/select?q=*:*"``

### Index a Document using CloudSolrClient

From a java client using SolrJ, index a document. In the code below, the `javax.net.ssl.*` system properties are set programmatically, but you could instead specify them on the java command line, as in the `post.jar` example above:

``````System.setProperty("javax.net.ssl.keyStore", "/path/to/solr-ssl.keystore.p12");