JWT Authentication Plugin

Solr can support JSON Web Token (JWT) based Bearer authentication with the use of the JWTAuthPlugin. This allows Solr to assert that a user is already authenticated with an external Identity Provider by validating that the JWT formatted access token is digitally signed by the Identity Provider. The typical use case is to integrate Solr with an OpenID Connect enabled IdP.

Enable JWT Authentication

To use JWT Bearer authentication, the security.json file must have an authentication part which defines the class being used for authentication along with configuration parameters.

The simplest possible security.json for registering the plugin without configuration is:

  "authentication": {

The plugin will NOT block anonymous traffic in this mode, since the default for blockUnknown is false. It is then possible to start configuring the plugin using REST API calls, which is described in section Editing JWT Authentication Plugin Configuration.

Configuration Parameters

blockUnknownSet to true in order to block requests from users without a tokenfalse
realmName of the authentication realm to echo back in HTTP 401 responses. Will also be displayed in Admin UI login page'solr-jwt'
scopeWhitespace separated list of valid scopes. If configured, the JWT access token MUST contain a scope claim with at least one of the listed scopes. Example: solr:read solr:admin
requireIssFails requests that lacks an iss (issuer) claimtrue
requireExpFails requests that lacks an exp (expiry time) claimtrue
algWhitelistJSON array with algorithms to accept: HS256, HS384, HS512, RS256, RS384, RS512, ES256, ES384, ES512, PS256, PS384, PS512, `noneDefault is to allow all algorithms
jwkCacheDurDuration of JWK cache in seconds3600 (1 hour)
principalClaimWhat claim id to pull principal fromsub
rolesClaimWhat claim id to pull user roles from. The claim must then either contain a space separated list of roles or a JSON array. The roles can then be used to define fine-grained access in an Authorization pluginBy default the scopes from scope claim are passed on as user roles
claimsMatchJSON object of claims (key) that must match a regular expression (value). Example: { "foo" : "A|B" } will require the foo claim to be either "A" or "B".
adminUiScopeDefine what scope is requested when logging in from Admin UIIf not defined, the first scope from scope parameter is used
redirectUrisValid location(s) for redirect after external authentication. Takes a string or array of strings. Must be the base URL of Solr, e.g., https://solr1.example.com:8983/solr/ and must match the list of redirect URIs registered with the Identity Provider beforehand.Defaults to empty list, i.e., any node is assumed to be a valid redirect target.
issuersList of issuers (Identity providers) to support. See section Issuer configuration for configuration syntax

Issuer Configuration

This plugin supports one or more token issuers (IdPs). Issuers are configured as a list of JSON objects under the issuers configuration key. The first issuer in the list is the "Primary Issuer", which is the one used for logging in to the Admin UI.

nameA unique name of the issuer. Used to manipulate list through API.
wellKnownUrlURL to an OpenID Connect Discovery endpoint
clientIdClient identifier for use with OpenID Connect. Required to authenticate with Admin UI. Needed for primary issuer only
jwksUrlA URL to a JWKs endpoint. Must use https protocol. Optionally an array of URLs in which case all public keys from all URLs will be consulted when validating signatures.Auto configured if wellKnownUrl is provided
jwkAs an alternative to jwksUrl you may provide a static JSON object containing the public key(s) of the issuer. The format is either JWK or JWK Set, see RFC7517 for examples.
issUnique issuer id as configured on the IdP. Incoming tokens must have a matching iss claim. Also used to resolve issuer when multiple issuers configured.Auto configured if wellKnownUrl is provided
audValidates that the aud (audience) claim equals this stringUses clientId if configured
authorizationEndpointThe URL for the Id Provider’s authorization endpointAuto configured if wellKnownUrl is provided
For backwards compatibility, all the configuration keys for the primary issuer may be configured as top-level keys, except name.

More Configuration Examples


To start enforcing authentication for all users, requiring a valid JWT in the Authorization header, you need to configure the plugin with one or more JSON Web Keys (JWK). This is a JSON document containing the key used to sign/encrypt the JWT. It could be a symmetric or asymmetric key. The JWK can either be fetched (and cached) from an external HTTPS endpoint or specified directly in security.json. Below is an example of the former:

  "authentication": {
    "class": "solr.JWTAuthPlugin",
    "blockUnknown": true,
    "jwksUrl": "https://my.key.server/jwk.json"
The configuration key jwkUrl is also supported as an alternative to jwksUrl for backwards compatibility with early versions of the plugin.

With Admin UI Support

The next example shows configuring using OpenID Connect Discovery with a well-known URI for automatic configuration of many common settings, including ability to use the Admin UI with an OpenID Connect enabled Identity Provider.

  "authentication": {
    "class": "solr.JWTAuthPlugin",
    "blockUnknown": true,
    "wellKnownUrl": "https://idp.example.com/.well-known/openid-configuration",
    "clientId": "xyz",
    "redirectUris": "https://my.solr.server:8983/solr/"

In this case, jwksUrl, iss and authorizationEndpoint will be automatically configured from the fetched configuration.

Complex Example

Let’s look at a more complex configuration, this time with two issuers configured, where one uses a static embedded JWK:

  "authentication": {
    "class": "solr.JWTAuthPlugin", 
    "blockUnknown": true, 
    "principalClaim": "solruid", 
    "claimsMatch": { "foo" : "A|B", "dept" : "IT" }, 
    "scope": "solr:read solr:write solr:admin", 
    "algWhitelist" : [ "RS256", "RS384", "RS512" ], 
    "issuers": [ 
        "name": "example1-static", 
        "jwk": { 
          "e": "AQAB",
          "kid": "k1",
          "kty": "RSA",
          "n": "3ZF6w....vjbCXxw"
        "clientId": "solr-client-12345", 
        "iss": "https://example.com/idp", 
        "aud": "https://example.com/solr" 
        "name": "example2",
        "wellKnownUrl": "https://example2.com/.well-known/oidc", 
        "aud": "https://example2.com/solr"

Let’s comment on this config:

1Plugin class
2Make sure to block anyone without a valid token
3Fetch the user id from another claim than the default sub
4Require that the roles claim is one of "A" or "B" and that the dept claim is "IT"
5Require one of the scopes solr:read, solr:write or solr:admin
6Only accept RSA algorithms for signatures
7Array of issuer configurations
8Each issuer object should have a unique name
9Here we pass the JWK inline instead of referring to a URL with jwksUrl
10Set the client id registered with Identity Provider
11Configure the issuer id. Will be used for validating tokens. A token’s 'iss' claim must match one of the configured issuer IDs.
12Configure the audience claim. A token’s 'aud' claim must match 'aud' for one of the configured issuers.
13This issuer is auto configured through discovery, so 'iss' and JWK settings are not required

Editing JWT Authentication Plugin Configuration

All properties mentioned above, except the 'issuers' array, can be set or changed using the Authentication API. You can thus start with a simple configuration with only class configured and then configure the rest using the API.

Set a Configuration Property

Set properties for the authentication plugin. Each of the configuration keys in the table above can be used as parameter keys for the set-property command.



curl http://localhost:8983/solr/admin/authentication -H 'Content-type:application/json' -H 'Authorization: Bearer xxx.yyy.zzz' -d '{"set-property": {"blockUnknown":true, "wellKnownUrl": "https://example.com/.well-knwon/openid-configuration", "scope": "solr:read solr:write"}}'


curl http://localhost:8983/api/cluster/security/authentication -H 'Content-type:application/json' -H 'Authorization: Bearer xxx.yyy.zzz' -d -d '{"set-property": {"blockUnknown":true, "wellKnownUrl": "https://example.com/.well-knwon/openid-configuration", "scope": "solr:read solr:write"}}'

Insert a valid JWT access token in compact serialization format (xxx.yyy.zzz above) to authenticate with Solr once the plugin is active, or leave blockUnknown=false until configuration is complete and then switch it to true to start enforcing.

There is currently no support for adding multiple token issuers though REST API, but you can configure one issuer through the API by using the 'issuer' properties as top-level properties.

Using Clients with JWT Auth


SolrJ does not currently support supplying JWT tokens per request.


To authenticate with Solr when using the cURL utility, supply a valid JWT access token in an Authorization header, as follows (replace xxxxxx.xxxxxx.xxxxxx with your JWT compact token):

curl -H "Authorization: Bearer xxxxxx.xxxxxx.xxxxxx" http://localhost:8983/solr/admin/info/system

Admin UI

When this plugin is enabled, users will be redirected to a login page in the Admin UI once they attempt to do a restricted action. The page has a button that users will click and be redirected to the Identity Provider’s login page. If more than one issuer (IdP) is configured, the first in the list will be used for Admin UI. Once authenticated, the user will be redirected back to Solr Admin UI to the last known location. The session will last as long as the JWT token expiry time and is valid for one Solr server only. That means you have to login again when navigating to another Solr node. There is also a logout menu in the left column where user can explicitly log out.

Using the Solr Control Script with JWT Auth

The control script (bin/solr) does not currently support JWT Auth.